Element Germanium

Germanium ElementElement Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.
Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.

Names and Identifiers

Chemical Formula:Ge
CAS:7440-56-4
Molecular Weight:72.640 g/mol
EC Number :231-164-3
MDL Number:MFCD00085310
Color:grayish white
Other Names:n/a
PubChem CID:6326954
IUPAC Name:Germanium
Inchl:InChI=1S/Ge
InChI Key:GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical SMILES:[Ge]
ICSC Number:n/a

Physical & Chemical Properties

Phase:Solid
Density:5.323 g/cm³
Boiling Point:3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Melting Point:11211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
Molecular Formula:Ge
Flash Point:n/a
Exact Mass:73.921181
Symbol:Globally Harmonized System of Classification
Signal Word:Warning
Hazard Statements:H315-H319-H335
Precautionary Statements:P261-P305 + P351 + P338
Hazard Codes:F:Flammable;Xi:Irritant
Risk Phrases:R11;R36/38
Safety Phrases:S26-S36/39-S2
RIDADR:UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany:3
RTECS:LY5200000
Packaging Group:III
Hazard Class:8

Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge Of these, 76Ge is very slightly radioactive, decaying by double beta decay

Naturally occurring isotopes

IsotopeMass/DaNatural abundance (atom %)Nuclear spin (I)Magnetic moment (μ/μN)
70Ge69.9242497 (16)20.84 (87)0
72Ge71.9220789 (16)27.54 (34)0
73Ge72.9234626 (16)7.73 (5)9/2-0.8794669
74Ge73.9211774 (15)36.28 (73)0
76Ge75.9214016 (17)7.61 (38)0

Radiosotope data

IsotopeMass/DaHalf-lifeMode of decayNuclear spinNuclear magnetic moment
64Ge63.94161.06 mEC to 64Ga0
65Ge64.939431 sEC to 65Ga
66Ge65.933852.26 hEC to 66Ga0
67Ge66.93273819.0 mEC to 67Ga1/2
68Ge67.92810270.8 dEC to 68Ga0
69Ge68.9279731.63 dEC to 69Ga5/20.735
71Ge70.92495411.2 dEC to 71Ga1/20.547
75Ge74.9228601.380 hβ to 75As1/20.510
77Ge76.92354911.30 hβ to 77As7/2
78Ge77.9228531.45 hβ to 78As0

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